(LITERASI KELAS X-XII) Civil aircraft

(LITERASI KELAS X-XII) Civil aircraft

All nonmilitary planes are civil aircraft. These include private and business planes and commercial airliners.

Private aircraft are personal planes used for pleasure flying, often single-engine monoplanes with nonretractable landing gear. They can be very sophisticated, however, and may include such variants as: “warbirds,” ex-military planes flown for reasons of nostalgia, ranging from primary trainers to large bombers; “homebuilts,” aircraft built from scratch or from kits by the owner and ranging from simple adaptations of Piper Cubs to high-speed, streamlined four- passenger transports; antiques and classics, restored older aircraft flown, like the warbirds, for reasons of affection and nostalgia; and aerobatic planes, designed to be highly maneuverable and to perform in air shows.

Business aircraft are used to generate revenues for their owners and include everything from small single-engine aircraft used for pilot training or to transport small packages over short distances to four-engine executive jets that can span continents and oceans. Business planes are used by salespeople, prospectors, farmers, doctors, missionaries, and many others. Their primary purpose is to make the best use of top executives’ time by freeing them from airline schedules and airport operations.

They also serve as an executive perquisite and as a sophisticated inducement for potential customers.  Other  business  aircraft  include  those  used  for  agricultural  operations,  traffic reporting, forest-fire fighting, medical evacuation, pipeline surveillance, freight hauling, and many other applications. One unfortunate but rapidly expanding segment of the business aircraft population is that which employs aircraft illegally for transporting narcotics and other illicit drugs. A wide variety of similar aircraft are used for specialized purposes, like the investigation of thunderstorms, hurricane tracking, aerodynamic research and development, engine testing, high-altitude surveillance, advertising, and police work.

Commercial  airliners  are  used  to  haul  passengers  and  freight  on  a  scheduled  basis between selected airports. They range in size from single-engine freight carriers to the Boeing

747 and in speed from below 200 miles per hour to supersonic, in the case of the Anglo-French Concorde, which was in service from 1976 to 2003. The Convention on International Civil Aviation (the "Chicago Convention") was originally established in 1944; it states that signatories should collectively work to harmonize and standardize the use of airspace for safety, efficiency and regularity of air transport.[4Each signatory country, of which there are at least 188, has a civil aviation authority (such as the FAA in the United States) to oversee the following areas of civil aviation:[citation needed]Also federal administration relies on 99.99%

·     Personnel licensing — regulating the basic training and issuance of licenses and

certificates.

·     Flight operations — carrying out safety oversight of commercial operators.

·       Airworthiness — issuing certificates of registration and certificates of airworthiness to civil aircraft, and overseeing the safety of aircraft maintenance organizations.

·     Aerodromes — designing and constructing aerodrome facilities.

·     Air traffic services — managing the traffic inside of a country's airspace.